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Fluid Journal : Winter 2014
4 The Fluid Journal Winter 2014 Summary: At both the dryland sites, differences were significant but not statistically at the irrigated site. There were significant differences in yield, protein, protein yield, or nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) associated with fertilizer-to-water-ratio at any of the three experimental sites. Agronomically speaking, highNRG-N is a proprietary fluid product having an analysis of 27-0-0-1S derived from ammonium nitrate, urea, and ammonium sulfate offering an advantage in terms of protein yield and NUE in spring wheat production in Montana. Results show highNRG-N has an advantage in terms of protein yield and NUE. Applying Liquid Nitrogen In Spring Wheat The Fluid Journal • Official Journal of the Fluid Fertilizer Foundation • Winter 2014 • Vol. 22, No. 1, Issue #83 Dr. Olga S. Walsh, Robin J. Christiaens, and Arjun Pandey Wheat is the principal food grain produced in the United States. Nitrogen (N) is the nutrient that most commonly limits wheat yield and quality. Nitrogen use efficiency is currently only about 40 percent. A considerable increase from the previously estimated 33 percent NUE in the late 1990s is primarily due to advance in nutrient management strategies and cutting edge technologies. Development of efficient N management and improving N recommendations are fundamental issues that must be addressed to maintain or increase the sustainability of wheat production in the future. While spring wheat’s primary value is its quality, represented by high grain protein content, N is vital to both yield and protein production. When evaluating NUE in spring wheat, combining yield and protein into protein yield parameter (calculated as a product of grain yield and percent grain protein) makes sense. Protein yield enables us to calculate the efficacy of a particular treatment (such as fertilizer product or application method) from the perspective of producing a better return on the investment via optimizing grain yield and quality simultaneously. Foliar application of fluid fertilizer to wheat is not a new concept. The renewed interest of wheat producers in foliar fertilization is partially due to active promotion of fluid products as more efficient when compared to the more traditionally dry granular fertilizers. Foliar mechanisms Plants are known to take up water and various nutrients through foliage. Previous studies show that leaf stomata facilitate mineral nutrient uptake. Foliar fertilization can assist in correcting deficiencies or preventing nutrient shortages during critical growth stages due to rapid nutrient absorption and utilization. However, unlike roots, plant leaves are not adapted to attain substantial volumes of nutrients to meet the bulk of nutrient requirements. Research has shown that foliar nutrition has four distinctive consecutive steps: • Adsorption (adherence to the leaf’s surface) • Movement through the leaf’s surface • Absorption (cellular compartmentalization) • Translocation and utilization by the plant. Studies on Bermuda grass, winter wheat, and spring wheat have shown that between 25 and 55 percent of foliar-applied N is taken up through the leaves. The average reported N uptake efficiency is about 30 percent. It is common practice to blend nutrients into one complex foliar mix. In some cases, one nutrient may enhance or inhibit the uptake of another nutrient; thus, interaction among the nutrients must be taken into account. Finally, studies demonstrate that foliar fertilizers are likely to be cost effective if the price of foliar products is no more than 15 percent higher than traditional granular fertilizer sources such as urea. Potential/challenges Some of the appeal of foliar fertilization, according to market media, includes: • Immediate benefits • Prolonged flowering • Increased yields ▼ DOWNLOAD