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Fluid Journal : Fluid Journal 2005-2007
Early Spring 2006 When Banding Near the Seed, Be Careful! Drs. George Rehm, John Lamb, Mark Bredehoeft Best if there is a small amount of soil between the seed and fertilizer. Fluid Journal 1 Grower interest in the use of banded fertilizer at planting is increasing. The renewed interest is due, in part, to frequent observations that banded fertilizer increases crop growth and subsequent yield. Compared to the once popular 2 x 2 placement (commonly called starter fertilizer), there are now several inexpensive attachments that can be used to place fertilizer in a band near the seed at planting time. These attachments provide an easy way for fluids to be placed close to the seed while allowing for some soil between the seed and fertilizer. A multi-row planter can easily be modified to apply banded fertilizer near the seed for a relatively low cost. Research funded by the Fluid Fertilizer Foundation in the mid-'90s showed that relatively high rates of fluids (10-34-0, 7-21-7, 4-10-10) could be applied in direct contact with corn seed Summary: While the use of 10-34-0 produced higher sugarbeet yields, yields at one site with sandy soil were lower when a high rate of all materials (10-34-0, 3-18-18, and 4-10-10) was used in contact with the seed. There was also reduced emergence when a high rate of 10-34-0 was placed in contact with the seed for crops grown on sandy soil. The 4-10-10 and 3-18-18 had no negative effect on emergence. Crop yields were not directly related to emergence. Treatment had no effect on corn yield when soil texture was a silty clay loam. Risk of damage can be reduced substantially if there is a small amount of soil between seed and fertilizer. at planting with no negative impact on either emergence or yield when soils were not sandy or dry. The soybean crop was less tolerant of seedplaced fertilizer. Recent research in Iowa has documented the positive benefits of several fluids placed near but not in contact with or very close to corn and soybeans. More recent research in northwestern Minnesota by Dr. Al Sims has shown that 10-34-0 applied at low rates in contact with the seed has very positive effects on both yield and quality of the sugarbeet crop. Because of the ease of handling and accuracy in calibration, placement of fl uid fertilizers near the seed is an ideal fit. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect on emergence and yield of corn, soybeans, and sugarbeets when placing fluid fertilizers near the seed. Procedure This 2004 study was conducted in the fields of five cooperating crop producers. Corn was the test crop at two sites with different soil textures (silty clay loam, loamy fine sand). Soil texture in the soybean field was silty clay loam. The two sugarbeet fields had different soil textures (sandy loam, silty clay loam). Soil samples (0 to 6 inches) were collected prior to planting. In general, soil test values for phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were high or very high. Therefore, if differences in yield were measured, they could be attributed to treatment rather than a response to the fertilizer applied. For this study, all combinations of three fluid sources (10-34-0, 4-10-10, 3-18-18) were applied at two rates in three positions near the seed (with seed, dual band above seed, single band above seed). The rates and sources of fl uid fertilizer applied are shown in Table 1. Adequate nitrogen (N) was applied to all treatments for corn and sugarbeets. Split applications of N were used at the irrigated corn site. Sulfur (S) was also broadcast and incorporated (25 lbs/A) before planting at this site. Crop emergence Table 1. Varied rates and fluid sources used to evaluate options for banding other than the traditional 2 x 2 starter placement, 2004
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