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Fluid Journal : Fluid Journal 1999-2001
Fall 2001 Fluid Journal 1 Drs.R.E.LamondandW.B.Gordon Kansasresearchersreport combo produced superior cornyields eventhoughsoilP and Klevels were high. Summary: With the interest in and importance of the use of starter fertilizers in conservation tillage production systems, research has been continued to evaluate higher rates of N in starters and different starter placements. The use in these studies of starters containing N, P, and K significantly increased corn yields compared to an N only program, even though soil P and K levels were high. Increasing N rates in direct seed- placed starter did not increase yields and significantly reduced plant population at both sites. Results confirm that higher N rates can be safely applied in starters when placed away from the seed (over the row or 2 x 2). The addition of 10 lbs/A of S in starter fertilizer significantly increased early-season corn growth and grain yield. With the cool, wet soil condi- tions encountered during early planting and the heavy residue cover in conservation tillage production systems, the use of starter fertilizers is a sound, efficient, and profitable management practice. C CCCC onservation tillage systems are characterized by at least a 30 percent residue cover at planting time. Some producers NPK Starters Best N-Only Starters are interested in applying their total nutrient program at planting in order to reduce trips. Univer- sity research over the past several years has emphasized the impor- tance of starter fertilizers in conservation tillage crops. Conservation tillage crops are subjected to several early- season stresses that limit the plant's ability to take up nutrients early in the season. Low soil temperature and soil compaction, combined with early planting dates for long-season hybrids, especially contribute to these stresses. They can be partially alleviated by use of starters even when soil test values for nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are high. Research has also shown that manipulation of starter formulations in regard to concentrations of various nutrients can have substantial influence upon their effectiveness. The concept of high nitrogen (N) starters has continued to develop over the past ten years. Research has clearly shown that yield advantages accrue from higher N:P2O5 ratios in starters than can be produced by normal manufacturing processes. The advantages of higher N concentra- tions include: 1) providing addi- tional N supplies early in the growing season, 2) allowing additional flexibility in timing of supplemental N applications, 3) beneficial effects of soil P fixa- tion reactions, and 4) enhanced P absorption even on high P-testing soils. University research has underscored the advantages in terms of higher crop yields. Production of high N starters necessarily requires blending of nitrogen solutions (UAN) with other starter formulations. Since half the N in UAN is urea, band- ing higher concentrations of N close to the seed provides oppor- tunity for the presence of free ammonia in proximity to the germinating seed. Crops are sensitive to free ammonia even on a very short-term basis and express that sensitivity in lowered seedling vigor and final stands. Some observations have suggested the possibility of corn population decline with the banding of high N starters close to the seed row, despite the advan- tages these formulations have demonstrated. Grower interest in higher N rates placed beside the row at planting under adequate rainfall or irrigated conditions, combined with dryland producer
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