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Fluid Journal : Fluid Journal 1999-2001
2 Fluid Journal Spring 2000 available to it when growing is critical to achieving optimum economic yield. This research project was established to address: • Does solution or dry fertilizer (N,P,S) placement influence early season uptake by spring wheat and canola? • Does fertilizer placement influence whole crop nutrient uptake? • Does blend placement and form influence yield and quality of spring wheat and canola? Sites for the studies were Melfort, Saskatchewan, and Brandon, Manitoba. Wheat at Melfort Germination. Seed row application of solution and dry blends had a significant negative effect on wheat seedling emergence at both 3 and 5 weeks after seeding. Spreading seed and fertilizer under a 4-inch sweep did not appear to reduce the negative effects of fertilizer placed close to the germinating seed. This was reflected in seedling dry matter yield. Yield. Seedling damage observed with seed row placement did not carry through to grain yield. An increase in tillering for seed row treatments provided some compensation to thin crop stands. The negative effects were small by flowering time and gone by harvest (Figure 1). Although not significant, dribble banding dry fertilizer was inferior to pre-seeding and side band applications, largely due to the poor performance when dry urea was surface applied (Figure 1). Fluid forms showed minor but significant yield advantages in this study. All fertilizer forms and placement methods showed a significant yield increase over the check. Canola at Melfort Germination. When emergence was evaluated three weeks post-seeding, canola seedlings showed a 73 percent reduction in plant stand when N was applied in the seed row. This was greater than the 33 percent reduction observed in wheat over the same time period. Spreading seed under the 4-inch sweep significantly improved emergence of seedlings compared to the narrow three-quarter-inch seed row, Dry fertilizer had more of a negative effect on seedling stand than fluid blends. Concentrating the solution band under the sweep when direct seeding may benefit stand by minimizing Pre-seed Band 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Grain yield (bu/A) Solution Dry Side- band Dribble Band Seed Row Sweep Check Figure 2. Canola grain yield, comparing placement and fertilizer source, Johnston, et al., Melfort, 1999. Pre-seed Band 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Grain yield (bu/A) Solution Dry Side- band Dribble Band Seed Row Sweep Check Figure 3. Canola grain yield, comparing placement and fertilizer source, Johnston, et al., Brandon, 1999.
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