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Fluid Journal : Fluid Journal 1999-2001
2 Fluid Journal Winter 2000 though all plots had received 400 lbs/A 10- 10-10 broadcast before planting. Fluid starter (10 gal/A 9-18-9) significantly increased grain yield where 180 lbs/A of N were added (Figure 1), but not where 380 lbs/A of N were added (Figure 2). Leaf N at the 4-leaf stage was deficient where starter was not added and remained deficient in the ear leaf for the 180-lb/A split (pre- plant and sidedress) application of N. In another study, complete fluid starters significantly increased grain yield at both the 1 80- and 380-lb/A rates of N when compared to those plots receiving only banded N (10 lbs/A) and S (1.4 lbs/A) at planting (Figures 3 and 4). Without starter, all plants showed some signs of yellowing and stunting. There were some signs of P deficiency. Florence In field studies, boron ( @ 0.58 lbs/A) in combination with an N, K2O fluid starter banded 2 by 2 at planting under maximum yield conditions increased yields as shown in Figure 5. Addition of boron to a complete NPK starter also increased yield (Figure 6). A larger amount of B (2 lbs/A) applied as sidedress was equally effective (Figure 6). The addition of 30 lbs/A of K2O in an NP starter also increased corn yield (Figure 7). Clemson In field experiments on a Cecil sandy loam at the Simpson Experiment Station, 6 gal/A of 3-18-18 fluid starter were banded 2 by 2 at planting of soybeans to compare yield response with plots where larger amounts of dry fertilizer were broadcast before planting. In what was a dry year, soybean yields were increased equally by 13 lbs/A of liquid P2O5 banded versus 50 lbs/A of dry P2O5 broadcast and disked before planting. However, soybeans did not respond as well to starters in the following year when there was more rainfall. With ample soil moisture throughout the growing season, soybeans obtained sufficient P from the soil as evidenced by leaf P concentration. 120 0 10 gal/A Rate of 9-18-9 + 1% S, 0.1% Zn Figure 3. Corn response to 2 by 2 banded 9-18-9 fluid starter, plus broadcast and side- dressed N (@ 180 lbs/A), P0(@140lbs/A),KO (@ 140 lbs/A) in Dothan loamy sand. 25 2 130 140 150 160 170 180 Yield - bu/A 90 0 10 gal/A Rate of 9-18-9 + 1% S, 0.1% Zn Figure 4. Corn response to 2 by 2 banded 9-18-9 fluid starter, plus broadcast and side- dressed N (@ 380 lbs/A), P0(@40lbs/A),KO (@340lbs/A)andB(@2 lbs/A in Dothan loamy sand. 25 2 100 110 120 130 140 150 Yield - bu/A 260 255 250 Starter Starte r + Boron Figure 5. Corn response to 2 by 2 banded N (@ 30 lbs/A), (@ 30 lbs/A), fluid starter without and with addition of 0.58 lbs/A of B. KO 2 265 270 275 280 285 290 Yield - bu/A Greenhouse experiment Because of questions concerning the effect of K2O in starter and the effect of granular versus fluid fertilizers for starters, a growth chamber (greenhouse) experiment was designed and established at our Clemson site to measure yield response of corn seedlings. A liquid 9-18-9 starter was compared with a granular 9-18-9 starter to study the effects of these two sources on P and K uptake. Both starters were placed in sand and soil rooting media. Overall corn growth response to 9-18- 9 granular and liquid starters was similar. Phosphorus uptake efficiency was greater under an adequate K regime (soil with adequate K or 9-18-9 starter added) than under an inadequate K regime (sand without adequate K or with a 10-34-0 fertilizer added). For this reason, the use of a complete NPK starter is recommended as desirable on
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