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Fluid Journal : Fluid Journal 1999-2001
1 Fluid Journal Fall 1999 Summary: In our studies, chloride (Cl) fertilization consistently increased wheat grain yields, most dramatically at sites having lowest soil Cl levels. Chloride fertilization also consistently and significantly increased plant Cl concentrations in a high percentage of the varieties used in this study. Chloride deficiency symptoms varied in intensity between varieties but were eliminated by Cl applications. Yield increases as great as 23 bu/A were observed. Return on investment at two locations in 1998 averaged $16/A. Responses to Cl fertilization appear to be most likely when soil Cl levels (0-24 inches) are less than 20 lbs/A and/or plant Cl concentrations are less than 0.10 percent. Chloride was determined to be an essential nutrient in 1954. Chloride is required for photosynthesis and is important in moisture retention. Research has shown that chloride has an important role in suppression of fungal leaf and root diseases. Chloride deficiency symptoms for crops are not well described because few have been observed under field conditions. Plants suffering from severe deficiency of Cl show symptoms of chlorosis. Leaf tips wilt followed by bronze coloration followed by necrosis. On first examination this can appear to be some sort of leaf disease. Leaf spot has been noted where soils were <1 ppm by Dr. R.E. Lamond, David D. Roberson, Kirby Rector Chloride Fertilization Bumps Wheat Yields, Profits Kansas researchers report yield increases as high as 23 bu/A in three-year trails and double-digit dollars returns over 16 varieties. Cl. Damage was minimal when whole plant Cl at heading was >0.10 percent. To further evaluate Cl fertilization/ wheat variety interactions, field studies were initiated in central Kansas from 1996 through 1998. Sixteen commonly grown winter wheat cultivars were seeded in early October of each year. Seeding rate was 75 lbs/A for all cultivars. Nitrogen and other needed nutrients were applied at levels sufficient for optimum wheat production. In February, chloride was topdressed at rate of 20 to 40 lbs/A as potassium chloride. Chloride can be applied preplant or topdressed. For winter wheat, topdressed applications may be most effective, particularly when leaching might occur through the winter. Potassium chloride, magnesium chloride and ammonium chloride comparisons indicate equal effectiveness. Magnesium chloride (fluid) won't mix with 10-34-0 but is readily compatible with UAN. Response sigificant Yield. Figure 1 shows the magnitude of crop response in 1998 at our Saline County site. Chloride applications of 20 lbs/A increased wheat yields as much as 19 bu/A. At all sites, a high percentage of varieties in our studies responded Figure 1. Wheat response to chloride applications and net return per acre in Saline County, showing selective varieties among 16, Lamond, et al., Kansas State University, 1998. 60 2137 Jagger Karl 92 Variety Mankato 2163 2137 Jagger Karl 92 Mankato 2163 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 Net $/A 80 90 100 110 120 Yield-bu/A No Chloride Chloride Net return 70 110 120
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