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Fluid Journal : Fluid Journal 1996-1998
2 Fluid Journal Summer 1997 significantly increase grain yield over control, but potassium inclusion (especially at the 40-lb/A rate of K2O was important as well. Highest yields observed were with 30-0-40-30 (N-P-K- Cl) at 150 bu/A and 30-30-40-30 at 153 bu/A as shown in Figure 1. Apparently the K added in the starters supplemented the somewhat lower than optimum soil test K levels in the plot area. Even though phosphorus soil test levels were also only in the medium range, the addition of P in the starters had no effect on grain yield. Similarly, the CaCl2 treatments had no significant effect on yield. Late summer dryness seriously stressed the crop at this location. At Belleville, there were no significant effects of starters or N-Serve on grain yield of corn (Figure 2). Apparently the late planting and the nearly ideal summer growing conditions (versus dry conditions at Dixon Springs) precluded any responses from the starters or N-Serve addition to the starters. The control plot yield (Figure 2) was even higher than the average yield for all the starter treatments, although the difference was not significant. Early growth. At Dixon Springs, adding N had only very little impact on 6-leaf-stage growth of corn. But applying N plus P in the starter increased dry weight of harvested tissue by 24 percent. The addition of K to starter had no additional effect on early growth of corn. Neither the addition of N-Serve nor chloride had any effect on the weight of ten harvested plants. However, chloride addition to starter (as 0-0-62 or CaCl2 produced a moisture content in immature corn about 0.5 percent greater than for the control or other starter treatments not containing chloride. Overall, growth was much better on the no-till than the chisel- tilled plots. At Belleville, the application of a starter that contained only N resulted in the largest dry matter increase at 6-leaf- stage growth of corn. Application of P or K with starter resulted in no additional growth of corn compared to N-only. Contrasted to Dixon Springs (where a starter response to P was observed), soil tests at Belleville were considerably higher in P and K, which may have accounted for the lack of a P or K starter response at that location. Application of N and K, but without P in the starter, actually decreased plant weight compared to the N-only treatment. N-Serve inclusion with starters at Belleville resulted in 15 percent dry matter increase. Unlike Dixon Springs, chloride addition had no effect on moisture composition of plant tissue. Nutrient composition. At Dixon Springs, all macro and secondary nutrients were affected by starter composition, except for sulfur. Nitrogen in the tissue was highest for N plus Cl (from CaCl2) treatments. All starters contained 30 lbs/A of N, which resulted in significantly higher N in the tissue compared to control. Nitrogen uptake was enhanced the least when K source in starter was KNO3. N-Serve inclusion with the starters significantly increased N in the tissue by about 0.1 percent. Phosphorus in immature corn tissue was significantly increased by its inclusion in starter, but increased P composition was greatest when the starter also included $ potassium. High K levels in soil solution are known to decrease Ca and Mg uptake. Addition of Ca in starter tended to result in the highest Ca and Mg levels in the tissue. Tillage tended to have a minimal impact on nutrient composition differences. At Belleville, nutrient composition of 6-leaf-stage corn plants was significantly affected by the starter components, but to a lesser degree than at Dixon Springs. Nitrogen composition of the tissue was unaffected by starter composition, but was increased by N- Serve. Both phosphorus and potassium composition were increased in the tissue by their addition to the starter. Potassium in the tissue was increased to the greater degree when K application rate was highest. This effect occurred even though the soil test K level was considered adequate for ideal crop growth. N-Serve enhanced P 200 150 100 50 012345678910-NS+NS 1. 0-0-0-0 Cl 3. 30-0-20-15 Cl 5. 30-0-0-15 Cl 7. 30-30-0-0 Cl 9. 30-30-40-30 Cl 2. 30-0-0-0 Cl 4. 30-0-40-30 Cl 6. 30-0-0-30 Cl 8. 30-30-20-15-Cl 10. 30-30-40-0 Cl N-Serve Bu/A Figure 2. Corn yield as affected by starter fertilizers and nitrification inhibitor at the Belleville Research Center, Varsa and Ebelhar, 1996.
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