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Fluid Journal : Fluid Journal 1996-1998
3 Fluid Journal Fall 1995 Fusarium root rot, a common bean disease in the area. The combination of cold, wet soil early, Fusarium root rot, and flower abortion is the likely cause of lower yields in this planting. Fusarium root rot was also present in 1995 and was more prevalent in early plantings. Considering the very high yields observed, it is unlikely that disease or adverse conditions reduced yields in 1995. Furrow irrigation after planting in 1994 was probably more detrimental to bean - seedling growth than the conditions created by the rainfall that occurred in 1995. Irrigation more thoroughly saturates the soil and temporarily creates an oxygen deficiency. Starters Treatments. Starter fertilizer treatments significantly affected early growth and final yield (Figure 3). There was a significant yield increase with N- only starter, and a consistent, if not significant, additional yield increase with Zn added to the starter. There was little or no benefit from P additions. Dry matter at V4 increased with P addition in 1995, but yield did not increase correspondingly. Greatest yields occurred with the N-P-Zn starter, but the same combination broadcast before planting had no significant effect. Starter fertilizer did not significantly affect dry matter at R8. Yield responses in this study occurred in spite of high levels of soil or fertilizer N, adequate soil-test levels of P, and very high soil- test Zn. Planting date. Response to starters was consistent among planting dates as evidenced by the lack of significant planting date x fertilizer interactions. Within planting date, larger plants early in the season seemed to relate to greater seed yields. The author speculates that nutritionally healthier plants early in the season initiate more pods and seeds, resulting in a greater photosynthate sink. During pod fill, greater dry matter accumulates in the seed at the expense of vegetative growth. Hybrid. Growth and yield were more strongly affected by planting date in the Midland variety than in the Bill Z. In both years, the variety x fertilizer interaction was significant only for V4 dry matter, with less response for the Midland variety than for Bill Z. Maturity. Starter treatments significantly affected maturity. One or two days can make a significant difference in seed quality if beans are nearing maturity at the time of frost. The N-only starter delayed maturity compared with the other treatments in 1995. Mean differences in days-to- maturity would be considered negligible under normal field practices. But, according to orthogonal contrasts for the planting date x fertilizer interactions, there were significant differences in frost damaged-seed percentages for the June 13 planting in 1995. All the plantings in 1994 and the first three plantings in 1995 completely matured before frost. The major effect of starters on seed damage was in greater damage with the N-only starter. N-P-Zn starter had damage percentages similar to the control. In previous research at Powell, Zn applications consistently hastened maturity, even in the absence of yield response. This was only observed in the latest 1995 planting of this study. Procedure Treatments. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications of each treatment in a split-strip-plot arrangement. Sub- subplots were given five fertilizer treatments (Table 1). Site. Soil at the site was Garland clay loam. Previous crop was malting barley. Soil was sampled in April to depths of 0-6 and 6-12 inches. Alachlor and EPTC were incorporated for weed control. The plot area was corrugated and planting-date treatments were irrigated as necessary before planting. Dr. Blaylock is extension soil scientist at the Powell Research & Extension Center, University of Wyoming. !
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