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Fluid Journal : Fluid Journal 1996-1998
3 Fluid Journal Winter 1996 Lohry in 1993 and Randall and Hoeft in 1988 reviewed results from using starter in Midwestern corn experiments with both no-till and conventional tillage. They reported yield responses to starters in states surrounding Illinois, but found that responses to specific nutrients varied from state to state. In warmer soils, however, responses to starters may not occur as consistently as in cool soil. In a southern Illinois 1990 experiment, Kapusta and Varsa did not find yield benefits from application of a portion of the fertilizer banded 2x2 when compared to all fertilizer being broadcast. Seed-placed. Applying fertilizers in a 2 x 2 band requires equipping planters with an extra coulter and may slow planting speeds. These drawbacks, plus the availability of "low-salt" fertilizers, have resurfaced interest in seed-placed (pop-up) fertilizers for no-till. It is recommended that no more than 10 to 15 lbs/A of N + K20 be applied with the seed because of the risk of salt injury. Mortvedt cites the desirable properties of seed-placed fertilizers as: high water solubility, low salt index, high analysis (especially P), and absence of NW liberating products. Baweja and Bates and Waters report that liquid fertilizers are less toxic to corn seedlings than dry fertilizers applied at rates providing the same total quantities of plant nutrients, because water contained in liquids dilutes the salts. However, the amount of water in these fertilizers is small compared to the amount in the soil, so these liquid sources probably also benefited from low salt contents. Ritchie is Jonathan Baldwin Turner Fellow, Dr. Hoeft is professor; Dr. Nafziger is professor, Gonzini and Warren are senior research associates in the Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois. Figure 1. Daily precipitation and minimum temperature at Ashton.
Fluid Journal 1993-1995
Fluid Journal 1999-2001