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Fluid Journal : Fluid Journal 1993-1995
1 Fluid Journal Spring 1995 Table 1. Fertilizer source for dry-bean treatmrnts at Powell, Wyoming, Blaylock, 1994. ------Source------ N rate P rate Zn rate Treatment Materials used --- - - -lbs/A- - ---- 200 0 band 32-0-0 20200 band 10-34-0 + 32-0-0 20201 band 10-34-0 + 13-0-0-15Zn1 + 32-0-0 20 20 1 broadcast 34-0-0 + 0-46-0 + ZnSO4 1 Ammoniated Zn-ammine complex Summary: The dry edible bean is an important crop in many northern states. Early planted beans generally exhibit slow early growth that may he related to reduced nutrient availability. A study was conducted at Powell, Wyoming, to determine optimum planting time for dry beans and the potential of starter -fertilizers to improve growth and yield of early- planted beans. Two varieties were planted on May 10, 20, and 31, and on June 10. Treatments were no starter (control), broadcast and band Early thy matter production was sign ificantly increased by starters. Crops treated with N-P-Zn starter produced yields averaging 300 lbs/A greater than those in control plots. Yields increased with later planting, but response to starters was consistent among planting dates. Later plantings matured more quickly than early plantings, but more rapid maturity rate did not make up for planting delay. Maturity differences among starter treatments were statistically significant hut too small to he of practical importance. The dry edible bean is an important crop in Wyoming, but is one that should be planted in warm soils after danger of frost is past. The short growing season in Wyoming, with its cool summers, is barely adequate for many dry-bean varieties. Producers have observed that beans planted early in cool soils do not always mature earlier than beans planted later in warm soils. In recent years, early fall frosts and unusually cool summers have resulted in significant crop losses and focused attention on implementing practices Dr. Alan D. Blaylock Starters With Zinc Increase Bean Yields Wyoming studies also show yields increase and plants mature more quickly with later plantings. that promote earlier maturity. Previous research at Powell, Wyoming, has shown that zinc applications can hasten bean maturity, even where soil zinc is adequate and yield responses are not normally observed. Preliminary research has also indicated the potential of starter fertilizers to improve bean production, and promote earlier maturity. Starters, however, are not widely used in our area. In order to determine the optimum planting time for dry beans and the potential of starter fertilizers to improve growth and yield and hasten maturity of early planted dry beans, a study was ini-tiated at our Research and Extension Center at Powell, Wyoming. Delayed planting helps Warm, dry summer weather resulted in conditions generally favorable for bean production. Warm weather in September and unusually late frost allowed all beans, regardless of planting date, to completely mature. Yields were good to excellent for the area. Variety and planting date yields are shown in Figure 1. In contrast to 1993, yields increased with later planting. Variety Bill Z yields were significantly greater than the Midland navy variety for all planting dates. Bill Z plants were larger at V4 for all planting dates, but by flowering, Midland plants tended to be greater. Yields from the May 10 planting were less than expected under the weather conditions that prevailed. Wet conditions in late April delayed field preparation, and irrigation did not follow until immediately after planting. This created cold, wet soil conditions during germination and seedling development, which was probably related to the conditions created by irrigation. These conditions probably also affected yield, but they give a good indication of plant response to early planting when conditions are unfavorable. Irrigating after planting also probably contributed to a greater incidence of Fusarium root rot, a common bean disease in the area. Disease symptoms were scattered throughout the plot area, but seemed most severe where planting occurred on May 10. Hot, dry winds in late June and early July seemed to cause some flower abortion in areas of May 10 planting, but no data were
Fluid Journal 1996-1998