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Fluid Journal : Fluid Journal 1993-1995
1 Fluid Journal Winter 1994 by Jerry Huffm an Nitrific ation Inhibitor/Fl uid Star Nitrific ation Inhibitor/Fl uid Star Nitrific ation Inhibitor/Fluid Star Nitrific ation Inhibitor/Fluid Star Nitrific ation Inhibitor/Fluid Starter ter ter ter ter Combinations Benefit Corn Y CombinationsBenefit CornY Combinations Benefit Corn Y CombinationsBenefit Corn Y Combinations Benefit Corn Yields ields ields ields ields Research shows possible synergy from combining two seemingly unrelated corn production practices. Summary: Fluid starter fertilizers stimulate faster early season growth and often boost yields, particularly when soil P is low or when early season growing conditions are cool. Nitrifica- tion inhibitors reduce N loss by stabiliz- ing N as ammonium. Their use is oJ greatest benefit in soils prone to high levels of N loss. Recent research has shown benefit from combining the two practices even though levels of N are low in starters. It appears that the pos- sible synergy between the two practices is a result of enhanced levels of ammo- nium near the plant that can stimulate greater uptake of N and P. aster early season growth is normally observed when a starter fertilizer is applied to corn. This quicker start frequently results in higher yields. Research shows that starters tend to benefit corn most when planted early in cold soils, when soils are compacted, and when soil levels of P and K are low. The boost in early season growth is often credited with producing quicker soil cover, which helps reduce soil erosion and moisture evaporation from soil. Earlier maturing corn and lower grain moisture are also observed. Nitrification inhibitors are widely recognized as N management tools that can improve corn yield in situations where potentials of N losses are high, such as on sandy soils and on poorly drained soils. Their use is also increasing in environmentally sensitive F areas where groundwater nitrate levels are of concern. Inhibitors reduce N leaching by stabilizing applied N in the ammonium form for an extended period of time. The resulting enhanced ammonium nutrition produces higher yields and greater levels of N and P uptake. Combining starters and nitrification inhibitors is a new practice that has proven to be beneficial to corn production in many situations. Adding nitrification inhibitors to starters appears to enhance the benefits of starters in situations where early season nutrient uptake is reduced by adverse growing conditions and in situations where high levels of residual soil N03-N can reduce phosphate uptake. Fine tuning N:P ratios. Standard starter fertilizers generally have had a N :phosphate ratio of 1:3. In recent years, however, 1:1 starters are proving to be very effective. For example, Touchton of Auburn University observed that a 1:1 starter produced corn yields equal to Table 2. Influence of nitrification inhibitors applied with a fluid starter, Rehn, University of Minnesota. Product Soil NO3-N Bray P1 Yield 0-3 feet lbs/A ppm bu/A ____________________________ Lamber ton ___________________________ Starter* --- --- 126.6 Starter+DCD 186 9.1 120.1 Starter +N-Ser ve --- --- 135.1** _ ________________________ Renville County ________________________ Starter * --- --- 162.8 Starter + DCD 53 10 170.1 Starter + N=Ser ve --- --- 167.4 * 10-20-0 at 100 lbs/A ** Significant difference at the 0.05 confidence level Table 1. Response of cor n to N and NP starters with and without nitrification inhibitor, Anderson, Iowa State University, 1988. Starter N-Ser ve Nitrogen Phosphate Yield Grain Moisture ______________ lbs/A ___________________ bu/A % 0 0 0 90 19.7 16 0 0 90 17.8 16 0 0.4 111 22.3 0 54 9 85 20.8 10 50 0 90 17.7 16 54 0.4 109 21.4 LSD (0.05) 16 2.2
Fluid Journal 1996-1998