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Fluid Journal : Spring 2016
14 The Fluid Journal Spring 2016 to increased crop yields and reduced emissions of greenhouse gas. The long-term Breton Classical Plots (established in 1930) are being used to measure the impact of fertilization practices on nitrous oxide emissions from soil. 7. Effect of Broadcast versus Banded Phosphorus Application on Fate of Applied Phosphorus in Soils and Snowmelt Water Flow. Dr. Jeff Schoenau, central Butte, Saskatchewan, CAN- 4RC07. Placing P fertilizer close to soybean seeds may boost crop yield and reduce losses in water runoff. Fertilizer placement and the time of its application for soybean production are under investigation. Loss of soluble P in snowmelt water from frozen soil and during spring thaw is also being measured. 8. Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizer Technologies to Reduce Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Cropped Soils in Prairie, Canada. D r. Mario Tenuta, Winnipeg, Ontario, CAN-4RC08. Applying anhydrous ammonia is popular due to its low cost, but complications arise from field operations. New application equipment allows a variety of fertilizer additives to be used with anhydrous ammonia, which may improve efficiency. Precision fertilizer placement techniques, rates of N conversion by soil microbes, and agronomic efficiency from fall-applied ammonia are being measured. 9. Canadian Project Management- Integration of the 4R Nutrient Stewardship Research Network Project Activities. Clyde Graham, Ottawa, Ontario, CAN-4RC09. A nationwide network of researchers is currently cooperating to quantify yield and environmental benefits from adopting the 4R framework 10. How does 4R Nutrient Stewardship Affect Environmental, Social, and Economic Outcomes? Dr. Alison Eagle, Ottawa, Ontario, CAN-4RC10. Evaluating the environmental and economic impacts of N and P fertilization practices in various Canadian cropping systems and potential improvements by implementing 4R Nutrient Stewardship. This activity synthesizes results of all Canadian network projects. 11. Impact of Degree of Fertilizer and Manure Incorporation and Timing of First Runoff Event on Phosphorus Losses in Surface Runoff. Dr. Ivan O’Hallaran, Guelph, Ontario, CAN-4RC11. Reducing runoff loss of fertilizer and manure P can be accomplished by improved placement and timing of application. These controlled runoff studies provide practical 4R guidelines for minimizing off-site transport of valuable crop nutrients. 12. Fund Research Repository. Dr. Sylvie Brouder, W. Lafayette, Indiana, USA-4RN45. Developing an information repository is used to preserve the data from all 4R Fund projects in a standardized way for future reuse. The research repository and framework will ensure that research data are standardized across projects, widely accessible, and archived for long-term preservation and reuse. The database is housed within the Purdue University Research Repository. 13. Evaluating the 4R Nutrient Stewardship Concept and Certification Program in Western Lake Erie Basin. Dr. Kevin King, Columbus, Ohio, USA-4RN09. Project is monitoring the impacts of 4R Nutrient Stewardship on crop productivity, profitability, nutrient loss, and water quality. The impacts of 4R adoption of the Western Lake Erie watershed are being measured and modeled. Follow-up surveys of farmers and crop advisors will guide future educational efforts for promoting widespread 4R adoption. 14. Impacts of 4R Nitrogen Management on Crop Production and Nitrate-Nitrogen Loss in Tile Drainage. Dr. Matt Helmers, Sutherland, Iowa, USA-4RN16. Reducing nitrate leaching losses to tile drainage can be achieved by implementing 4R-based practices for corn production. The field site has an instrumented tile drainage system that allows analysis of water flows and nutrient composition under 4R- managed fields. This provides a direct link between 4R practices and water quality measurements from fields hydrologically linked to the Mississippi River. 15. Supplemental Late-vegetative Nitrogen Applications for High-yield Corn: Agronomic, Economic, and environmental implications with Modern Versus Older Hybrids. Dr. Tony Vyn, W. Lafayette Indiana, USA- 4RN25. Developing 4R fertilizer recommendations for modern corn hybrids requires understanding if they are more responsive to very late vegetative N applications than older varieties. Various fertilizer rate and timing combinations are being studied to measure crop performance and nutrient efficiency. 16. Minimizing Phosphorus Loss with 4R Stewardship and Cover Crops. Dr. Nathan Nelson, Manhattan, Kansas, USA-4RN26. Planting winter cover crops has the potential to increase corn and soybean yields, while minimizing P loss. Eighteen instrumented watersheds allow collection of runoff water from plots receiving various P fertilizer management practices with winter cover crop treatments. 17. 17 & 18. Relationships of Nitrous Oxide Emissions to Fertilizer Nitrogen Recovery Efficiencies in Rain-fed Corn Systems. Dr. Tony Vyn, W. Lafayette, Indiana, USA- 4RN27, USA-4RN28. Emitting nitrous oxide (N2O) during corn production is a concern because this crop responds well to N fertilization and agriculture is the largest source of N2O emissions. Most studies rely on measures of N use efficiency (grain N harvested), but total plant N uptake is a better indicator of making productivity estimates. N2O emissions are measured from corn fields fertilized with different N sources and tillage systems. Scientific literature will be synthesized to understand the relationship between the N accumulation by corn and N2O emissions as influenced by 4R management practices. Funded reviews